Drilling on the Lathe
DRILLING WITH THE LATHE
Frequently, holes will need to be drilled using the lathe before other internal operations can be completed, such as boring, reaming, and tapping. Although the lathe is not a drilling machine, time and effort are saved by using the lathe for drilling operations instead of changing the work to another machine. Before drilling the end of a workpiece on the lathe, the end to be drilled must be spotted (center- punched) and then center- drilled so that the drill will start properly and be correctly aligned. The headstock and tailstock spindles should be aligned for all drilling, reaming, and spindles should be aligned for drilling, reaming, and tapping operations in order to produce a true hole and avoid damage to the work and the lathe. The purpose for which the hole is to be drilled will determine the proper size drill to use. That is, the drill size must allow sufficient material for tapping, reaming, and boring if such operations are to follow.
The correct drilling speed usually seems too fast due to the fact that the chuck, being so much larger than the drill, influences the operator's judgment. It is therefore advisable to refer to a suitable table to obtain the recommended drilling Asp.eeds for various materials, such as Table 4-2 in Appendix
Supporting drills in the tailstock
Methods of supporting the twist drill in the tailstock can vary (Figure 7-95). Straight shank drills are usually held in a drill chuck, which is placed in the taper socket of the tailstock spindle. Combination drill and countersinks (center drills), counterbores, reamers, taps, and other small shank cutters can also be supported in this way.
Figure 3-95. Set ups for drilling with the lathe.
Tapered-shank twist drills may be held directly in the tailstock tapered spindle as long as a good fit exists. If the drill shank is not the correct size, then a drill socket or sleeve may be used in the tailstock spindle.
A twist drill holder is used to support large twist drills with the tailstock center. The drill is inserted into the holder and the tailstock center is placed in the center hole which is located at the rear of the drill holder. The holder will rest on the cross slide or compound rest and must be supported by hand until it is held secure by pressure between the tailstock and headstock. When using this method, never withdraw or loosen the tailstock spindle while the lathe is rotating or the workpiece can be thrown out at the operator. Always stop the machine before attempting to withdraw the twist drill.
Another method of supporting a large twist drill in the tailstock is to fasten a lathe dog to the drill shank and support the rear of the drill with the tailstock center in the center hole in the tang of the drill.
Supporting Drills in the Headstock
The drill can also be held and rotated in the headstock with the work held stationary against the tailstock. Straight shank twist drills are supported in the headstock by a drill chuck or collet which is mounted in the headstock spindle. A universal or independent jaw chuck can also be used to hold and turn twist drills if a headstock drill chuck is not available. Tapered shank twist drills can be mounted in the headstock by using a special adapter, such as a sleeve with an internal taper to hold the tapered drill, while the outside of the sleeve is made to fit into the headstock spindle.
Mounting Work for Drilling
If the work is to be rotated and the twist drill will be fed into the end of the work, the work should be mounted in a chuck, on a faceplate, or in a collet. The center of the hole to be drilled should be accurately marked and punched as described for drilling setups.
Always start holes by using a center drill, since this method will be the most accurate and the most efficient. Center-drill by rotating the spindle at computed drill speed and gently bringing the point of the center drill into the end of the work until the proper depth is reached.
If the twist drill is to be rotated by the headstock spindle and the workpiece is to be supported by a V-center mounted in the tailstock, the work should be carefully positioned by hand and the drill moved lightly into contact with the workpiece before starting the lathe. The workpiece must be well supported during drilling operations to prevent the work from being thrown from the lathe or rotating with the drill.
To start the drilling operation, compute the correct RPM for the drill and set the spindle speed accordingly. Ensure the tailstock is clamped down on the lathe ways. The feed is controlled by turning the tailstock handwheel. The graduations on the tailstock spindle are used to determine the depth of cut.
If a large twist drill is used, it should be proceeded by a pilot drill, the diameter of which should be wider than the larger drills web.
Use a suitable cutting fluid while drilling (Table 4-3 in Appendix A). Always withdraw the drill and brush out the chips before attempting to check the depth of the hole. If the drill is wobbling and wiggling in the hole, use a tool holder turned backwards (Figure 3-96) to steady the drill. Always use a drill that is properly ground for the material to be drilled. Use care when feeding the drill into the work to avoid breaking the drill off in the work. The drill should never be removed from the work while the spindle is turning because the drill could be pulled off the tailstock spindle and cause injury or damage.
Figure 3-96. Steadyin the drill.
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- Machining Handbook - adapted from the US Army's Handbook "Fundamentals of Machine Tools"
- Chapter 1. Introduction to the Machine Shop
- Chapter 2. Properties, Identification and Heat Treatment of Metals
- Chapter 3. Lathes
- Types Of Lathes
- Tools and Equipment
- Laying-out And Mounting Work
- General Lathe Operations
- Special Operations on the Lathe
- Lathe Tool Post Grinder
- Using Steady and Follow Rests
- Chapter 4. Milling Operations
- Chapter 5. Milling, Grinding, Drilling And Slotting Attachments
- Chapter 6. Drilling Machines
- Chapter 7. Sawing Machines
- Chapter 8. Grinding Machines
- Chapter 9. Portable Machine Tools